Tiko Council pattern

Physical framework and population


  1. Biophysical Environment:
    1. Climate:
    2. The climate of Tiko is tropical. It is highly difficult, if not impossible, to forecast what the weather will be like at a certain time in a very precise place as there is hardly a month completely free from rainfall.

      Tiko therefore has significant rainfall most months, with a short dry season. The wet season is warm and overcast, the dry season is hot and mostly cloudy, and it is oppressive year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 74°F to 90°F and is rarely below 72°F or above 94°F. 

      Based on the beach/pool score , the best time of year to visit Tiko for hot-weather activities is from late November   to late January.

      Average sunshine hours
      Figure 1: Average sunshine hours

      In Tiko, the average annual temperature is 25.6 °C.  

      The hot season  lasts for 3.0 months ,  from January 7  to April 9 ,  with an average daily high temperature above 88°F . While, the cool season  lasts for 2.4 months ,  from July  to   September , with an average daily high temperature below 82°F .  About 2975 mm of precipitation

      Average sunshine hours
      Figure 2: Average monthly humidity
      Average sunshine hours
      Figure 3: Tiko - Rainfall in mm (Ref. Le Voyageur, 2019)

      The Tiko municipality generally has a coastal equatorial climate with two distinct seasons: a long rainy season of about 8 months and a short dry season of about 4 months. Though there is hardly a month without rainfall. The annual amount of rainfall ranges from 2000mm to 4000mm.

      The rainfall pattern provides suitable conditions for both perennial and annual crops to grow; thus providing ideal conditions for two cropping seasons a year.

      The rainfall is one of the most important climatic factors influencing agriculture, having the highest effect in determining the potential of the area, the crops grown, the farming system and the sequence and timing of farming operations. It is the supplier of soil moisture for crops.

      Daily temperatures are high throughout the year and range from 28°C to 33°C with  Wind E at 3 km/h, and 96% humidity

      Average sunshine hours
      Figure 4: Tiko-Average monthly Relative humidity

      The atmospheric humidity varies with the absolute value and the seasonal distribution of rainfall, being uniformly high throughout the wet season, and falling to lower levels during the dry season.

      Average sunshine hours
      Figure 5: Tiko-Average monthly wind speed
    3. Soils
    4. The rather flat and monotonous landscape of Tiko Municipality may suggest an equally uniform soil pattern at first sight, but a detailed soi1 survey by some experts (Dr Kips E, Van R, Krooh L) revealed a wide variety in soils.

      Though most of the soils have pale yellowish brown colours, they differ in texture, effective depth to laterite trust, grave1 content, drainage, mineralogical and chemica1 properties.

      Tiko plain is an old, slightly uplifted, tilted and dissected coastal plain of low relief stretching out at the south eastern foot of the Cameroon volcano (4070m). The plain is built up of thick layers of marine and deltaic deposits. According to Dumont (1968) these were laid down during the Tertiary (Mio-Pliocene), thus having about the same age as the early eruption in the Mount Cameroon area.

      When looking in detail, Tiko plain consists of a series of fluvio-marine terraces at successive lower levels (Hasselo 1961) and at least part of the sediments are thought to have a younger, quaternary age. The Mondoni area for instance (figure 7) should be regarded as a sub recent alluvial basin with deposits showing fresh stratification of sands and clays (Kips and others 1984). A low, abrupt terrain step, roughly coinciding with the 5m contour line forms the limit of the plain with the mangrove swamps to the SE. The 80m contour is the approximate limit with the Mount Cameroon slope to the NW.

      Lithological, Tiko plain can be divided into two parts (Hasselo 1961): the so-called volcanic part with finely layered tuffites in the SW and the non-volcanic part in the NE (Fig.7). The non-volcanic part, consists of unconsolidated sediments with fair amounts of quartz in the Sand and silt fractions.

      Typical for the non-volcanic part of Tiko are the large sheets of outcropping laterite duricrust ('ironcrust'). These occupy somewhat higher positions in the landscape, more resistant as they are to erosion. Residual soi1 covers on the trusts are rather shallow and contain high amounts of ironstone grave1 (laterite rubble).

      Average sunshine hours
      Figure 6: Physiography of major soils of Tiko plain (c/f soils in Tiko plain area, SWR. Dr KIPS A, MOUKAM A, RANST A

      Soi1s on Tiko plain have a wide variety in properties. They differ in texture, effective depth, grave1 content, drainage and mineralogical and exchange characteristics. A striking phenomenon is the increase in smectite levels in the soils from the highest to the lowest parts of the plain. This could be related to its geomorphic history being built up of fluvio-marine terraces at successive lower levels (Ilasselo, 1961).

      The residual soils on the laterite trusts are the oldest and most weathered ones in which all smectites were transformed to kaolinitc and oxides of iron and aluminium, while the stratified river basin soils are Young and still contain high amounts of "transformable" smectite.

      However drainage may play a role as well. With drainage becoming more impeded at lower levels more smectities may have been formed by neo-formation and/or preserved. Soils on the laterite trusts classify as Typic and Tropeptic Haplorthox. Those around the trusts classify as Typic Distropepts and Plinthic and Typic Tropudults. Soils of the river plains classify as Fluvaquentic Eutropepts and Aquic Tropohumults.

      The non-volcanic soil show clear evolution in mineralogy and profile development from the lowest to the highest level. The levels cut across the boundary between the non-volcanic and the volcanic part, but no sequence in mineralogy and soil development is observed in the volcanic part. The mineralogical composition of the fine sand fraction is the most important indicator regarding the type of parent material (volcanic or non-volcanic).

      There is an overall relationship between the mineralogical composition and properties of the soils.

      However, from observations, the soils of the Tiko municipality are of sandy alluvial and volcanic soil types with high agricultural potentials. The volcanic soils are highly exploited for plantation agriculture. Due to poor farming techniques in the area, there is gradual decline in soil fertility. Parts of the areas bordering the shores with mangrove forests has sticky dark clay soil.

    5. Relief
    6. Tiko municipality is mainly characterized by coastal lowlands with wetlands and flood zones and to a lesser extent by gentle undulating and rolling hills around Likomba and Mutengene. The lowland areas are the sites favorable for human settlement.

    7. Hydrology
    8. The main water courses in the Tiko municipality include River Mungo, the Ombe River, Ndongo and Benyo streams. Many smaller streams feed the main rivers and streams. These rivers and streams empty into the Atlantic Ocean. The river Mungo has many species of fish and sand that are highly exploited by villagers in the Mungo area. The streams and rivers are also used as sources of water for domestic use (washing, cooking, and even drinking) in most of the villages

      There also exist a few springs in the area (1 in Missellelle, 2 in Mutengene at quarter one, and one in Likomba along the bank of Ndongo stream). These springs are also used as water sources for domestic use and drinking.

      No lakes are found in the area. However, there are many marshy areas, which are temporary wet during the rainy season.

    9. Vegetation
    10. Eighty percent (80%) of the forest land of Tiko municipality has been converted to oil palm, rubber and banana plantations by CDC, large scale small holder farmers as well as local subsistence farmers. Only few patches of secondary forests exist. The creeks harbor large areas of mangrove forest which is very highly exploited for wood. These mangrove swamps form important breeding sites for fish, shrimp and other important aquatic wildlife. Small patches of grassland also exist in some of the elevated areas (hill tops). There also exist artificial forests of oil palms and Rubber.

    11. Fauna
    12. Tiko’s mangroves are colonised by endemic, endangered and practically unstudied wildlife species; yet the ecosystem has been degraded such that they have been reduced since 1980 by about 30% as a result of deforestation (UNEP-WCMC 2007). Unavoidably, wildlife habitat and population have been affected such that rehabilitation of mangroves and wildlife protection is a priority to combat climate change.

      Mangrove forests are extremely productive ecosystems that provide numerous goods and services both to marine environment as well as to in situ and ex situ communities. In the Tiko coastal areas act as watersheds for people and are home to a wide variety of fish, crab, shrimp, and mollusk species that cannot be found in any other aquatic ecosystem. These fisheries constitute a key source of food and income for coastal community of Tiko Municipality, while the forests serve as nurseries for many fish species such as coral reef fish.

      Mangrove wood has been proven resistant to rot and insects, making it particularly cherished for activities such as construction and household fuel. When sediments flow down rivers, the dense and breathing root systems of mangrove forests trap these sediments and helps prevent the coastline from erosion and floods. Thanks to the diversity of life flourishing in mangrove ecosystems, and their closeness to other tourist attractions such as coral reefs and sandy beaches, they can be a source of income from eco-tourism if properly managed. 

      The clearance of forest for farm lands and harvesting of mangroves for fuel destroys the habitat of many wildlife species rendering them homeless and vulnerable to extinction. This has led to the disappearance of many of the forest fauna species that existed in the municipality especially the seahorse that used to be very popular along the marshy coastland mangroves areas. However, few wildlife species still exist in the area.

      Table 4: Some fauna species in the Tiko municipality
      Habitats Animal species present
      Fresh water (River Mungo)
      • Fish
        • Yenga
        • Cameroon Telga
        • Mollete
        • Groupa

      • Animals
        • Turtles
        • Crocodiles
        • River pig (locally called Idima)
      • Fish
        • Bar
        • Sea Groupa
        • Sharks
        • Crayfish

      • Animals
        • Tortoise
      • Animals
        • Monkeys
        • Snakes (Mboma)
        • Alligator

      • Birds
        • African green parrots
    13. Protected sites
    14. There exist natural sites with ecological importance, like wetlands, forest, mangrove swamps, but without any protection status. This explains the reason why there is high rate of depletion of natural resources in the municipality. There is need for zoning, to carve out some of the ecologically important areas for protection.

      Bonako Mainland has a sacred forest with a surface area of 0.1Ha and the dominant species in this forest is Black Afara.

    15. Mineral resources
    16. It is obvious that valuable resources are to be found beneath the surface of the earth in the form of mineral.

      No research has been carried out to discover the types of minerals found underneath the surface in the area. However, there is a possibility of the existence of an underground petroleum deposit in the Bonako Island. The people there complained that the petroleum sips into wells contaminating the water.

      The Tiko municipality is also endowed with a lot of sand present in rivers and the creeks. This sand is being exploited in small scale by the inhabitants for income.

      There  exists a large quarry in  quarter 20 in Mutengene (Ombe New Layout), which is being exploited by a construction company (NEO-TP).There also exist small Quarries in the Tiko town area, exploited by the inhabitants in small scales for income generation.

    17. Assets, potentials and constrains of the biophysical environment
    18. Tiko municipality has significant biophysical features that define the area. Table 8 shows some assets, potentials and constraints of the biophysical environment.

      Table 5:  Tiko Municipality - Assets, potentials and constraints of the biophysical environment
      Assets Potentials Constraints
      Warm humid climate Provides suitable conditions for growth of both annual and perennial crops. Suitable atmosphere for great flora & fauna. Suitable climate for agricultural, outdoor and touristic activities. Crop pests, diseases and parasites. Mosquitoes. Waterborne and skin diseases.
       Soil types (sandy alluvial & volcanic soils) Fertile soils for food & cash crop production. Mud, Sand and gravel construction material Poor farming Methods. Decline in soil fertility. Muddy terrain/roads during rains that render movement/accessibility difficult/expensive.
      Lowlands Good for human settlement Floods
      Lowlands Plantation farming Environmental impact, climate & ecosystem change, deforestation, pollutants, synthetic fertilizers & pesticides, soil degradation, change of habitats & foods for soil organisms.
      Lowlands Agro industrial development Residue management, pollution, land use impact, negative impact on ecology, cost on human health and safety.
      Rivers and streams Contain a lot of fish and sand. Irrigation potential. Growing of vegetables and crops in dry season. Poor fishing methods (use of toxic chemicals) Illegal exploitation by foreigners. Floods. Impact of water volume reduction and drying of streams on agricultural value chain.
      Rivers and streams Water source for domestic activities. Contamination. Water borne diseases. Drying up due to climate change effects.
      Rivers and streams Transportation  medium Accidents. Disappearance of some streams and creeks. Habitat construction on water partway.
      Springs Water source for drinking and domestic activities Contamination and water borne diseases. Unprotected catchment sites.
      Mangrove swamps Exploited for fuel and construction wood. Irrational exploitation. Disappearance of adapted flora and fauna and natural habitat.
      Mangrove swamps Tourist attraction Undeveloped sites. Destruction of touristic potentials by human activities & urban development.
      Mangrove swamps Breeding sites for fish and other aquatic species. Destruction of breeding sites.
      Fauna Existence of fresh water, marine and forest species Habitat destruction (clearance of forest and pollution of water courses)
      Sand and stone Available for construction / Exploitation by local population for income generation Over exploitation and unguided use by big companies.
  2. Demography
  3. According to the 2010 Population estimate of the Tiko health district reproduced by UNICEF, the Tiko municipality had a total population of 134,649   inhabitants. This 2010 figure can be estimated today at 208,885   inhabitants considering annual 5% growth rate of UN projections for urban population growth rate for Africa and World Bank 2017 Sub-Saharan Africa Urban Population Growth Rate (CSIS - Centre for Strategic International Studies). Here we utilise the N-1 +(0.5 x N-1) = N; where N is Present, N-1 is Previous.

    This gives an average projected population density of 43.5 inhabitants per Km 2 for the Municipality for 2019. Table 9 below gives the structure of the population by age bracket.

    According to the health district data and related projections, 51% of the population falls within the active age bracket (15-60 years), while 49% of the population falls within the inactive age groups  (<15 and> 60 years).

    1. Population mobility:
    2. The rate of movement into and out Tiko Municipality is very high. The influx of people from other Municipalities and tribes in Cameroon and Nigeria are attributed to the rich soil, fishing waters, plantation employment opportunities, and commercial nature of the Town which attracts traders and merchants. Civil servants are equally transferred to and from the Tiko Sub division to live and work there. People, especially the youths move from the Municipality to other sub divisions and cities either to search for greener pastures (better paid jobs), to further their education (attend universities or professional schools) or to do business.

      There is also movement within the municipality with people moving from the villages to the town to consult in hospitals, attend secondary schools, certify documents, and buy provisions to be retailed in the villages. Traders from towns also go to village markets either to sell or buy.

      In a whole five large regional-cultural divisions could be found within the Municipality:

      • Western highlanders (Semi-Bantu or grass fielders population).
      • Coastal tropical forest peoples, including the south west and littoral regions.
      • Southern tropical forest peoples, from the Centre, South and East regions.
      • Islamic peoples of the northern semi-arid regions (the Sahel) and central highlands, including the Fulani (French: Peul or Peuhl; Fula: Fulɓe) and the "Kirdi", non-Islamic or recently Islamic peoples of the northern desert and central highlands.
      • Foreign migrant population from other countries (majority Nigerian)
    3. Religion:
    4. The Tiko Municipality has a plethora of religious groups. A majority of them are Christians of different denominations like Catholics, Presbyterians, Baptist, Full Gospel Mission, the Apostolic, 7 day Adventist, and Jehovah witnesses, etc.

      There exists a growing trend of Christian spiritual or charismatic churches with particular influx from Nigeria. However, a few indigenous populations still maintain their traditional African religions, jujus, and beliefs. Some combine and exchange intermittently. The Muslim population is also growing especially in the urban spaces.

      The order of importance is as follows:

      1. Catholics
      2. Presbyterians
      3. Charismatic Christians
      4. Baptist
      5. Other protestant Christians
      6. Animist and traditional African religions
      7. Muslim and Islamic faithful