Tiko Council pattern

Economic Activities of the Council


  1. The Mission, Vision, values, Motto/slogan, Insignia
    1. Every council needs a vision statement which stirs the imagination and motivates all segments and stakeholders of the Municipality to greater effort for economic development and prosperity. Since the last CDP the position of Tiko Municipality had been clear on its mission and vision like that of most councils in the country that went through the onerous process of realising their development Plan. It is important to note however that, these aspects of the council which have since remained relevant now require more realistic actions and reviews to accompany them.

      In this guise, Council staff, Executive and steering committee during joint and separate sessions recognized the vision statement as an essential step in building consensus for local development Strategy. This to them encompasses, inter-alia, the roles and responsibilities of different agents in the economy, such as the council, the population, entrepreneurs, sectoral, local, National and International partners.

      Although Tiko seems to be a young developing urban city, the combination of several inherent rare factors such as its resilient hard working people, its celebrated history, fertile agrarian soil, strategic location, conducive all year climate, rich plant, aquatic and animal life contribute to give it the unique and eminent potential summed in its Vision, Mission, Values, Goal, motto or slogan.

      VISION of Tiko Municipality

      “By 2030, Tiko will be a strong, economically active municipality, with adequate and equitable coverage of social infrastructures allowing citizens to live in a secure, healthy and comfortable environment”.

      MISSION of Tiko Municipality

      “Tiko Municipality shall endeavour to reinvent and expand its development services so as to sustain the socio-cultural, economic, environmental safety and wellbeing of its citizens, by cultivating a triadic relationship of Civil Society, Government and Business”.

      VALUES of Tiko Municipality

      Members of the executive, steering committee and staff agreed to embrace a guiding attitude towards realising the mission, vision and objectives of the municipality.

      In order to uphold high level service delivery to the population, ensuring that the Council remains accessible to all with an open door policy where the community and its citizens are truly at the core of every decision for the future, the following was adopted on general approbation to represent the core values of the council:

      Our People - Our Community - Our Service

      MOTTO or SLOGAN of Tiko Municipality

      The Council Executive, Steering committee, some staff and stakeholders jointly and separately adopted the Motto or Slogan for Tiko Municipality as:

      “The Gateway City”

      This was done with the following reflection:

      The Municipality is the principal exit from the South West Region into the most populated and industrial city of Cameroon, Douala;

      The gateway into the South West Region from Littoral and other French speaking Regions of Cameroon;

      Has a historic deep seaport for exit to other parts of the world and coastal towns of the country

      Has an airport that received major national and international flights and passengers

      Seaport with consistent movements of people and goods to Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea.

      LOGO or INSIGNIA of Tiko Municipality

      The Tiko council emblem remain unchanged with a hoe and machete at the centre insinuating the over 80% of its land used for a variety of agrarian activities.

      Tiko Logo
      LOGO or INSIGNIA of Tiko Municipality

      The Staff, Steering committee as well Executive present during the CID entry and exit validation exercises considered the mission, vision, values and slogan or motto stated above as basis for elaborating its Communal Development Plan. With this build the ultimate objective is to make Tiko a hub and modern city in complete harmony with its historic past.

  2. Economic Activities (EA)
  3. Economic activities of Tiko Municipality can be generally classified within three main sectors. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.

    1. Primary sector:
    2. Agriculture and allied activities like mining, fishery, forestry, dairy and poultry are naturally included in this sector.   The sector is generally defined by natural resource management activities such as agricultural, animal rearing, fishing, forest exploitation and extractive activities

      1. Agriculture:
      2. Agriculture is the economic base of Tiko Municipality. Over 70% of the entire surface area is under farming and about 90% of the population of the municipality practice agriculture either through agro industrial plantations, Small holder schemes or directly as subsistence farmers and market gardeners. The highly fertile soils and favorable ecological conditions are ideal for the cultivation of a variety of crops. However, farmers are not getting the best yields for their labor due to poor farming practices, crop pests and diseases, cost of chemicals and market trends.

        The biggest farmers in the area are the Cameroon Development Corporation CDC, Delmonte and PHP who are into large scale production of rubber, banana and oil palm for exportation. Small holder schemes exists and have organized themselves into Associations, CIGs or EIGs like TAOP (Tiko Area Oil Palm Cooperative), MUDECEA (Tubers), Rubber, and Maize farmers.

        A substantial percentage of the population is also engaged in the cultivation of bananas, plantains, maize, cassava, yams, coco yams, okro, cocoa, mangoes, palm, coconut, vegetables, etc. as single or mixed crops, as cash crops or subsistence farming. Most of the small scale farming is for domestic subsistence. Table 7 show some of the main crops produced in the Tiko municipality as per the sub divisional delegation of agriculture.

        Table 8: Crop production in Tiko Municipality
        Crop types Area cultivated (Ha) Quantity produced (Tones)
        Cassava 800
        Maize 750 600
        Cocoyam 150 450
        Egusi 80
        Leafy vegetables (assorted variety) 83.33 25
        Citrus fruits (orange, grape fruit, lemon, etc.) 150 trees 15
        Palm oil 317 950
        Plantain 300 1200
        Cocoa 1300 650
        Pineapple 8.33 25
        Mangoes 75 750
        Plums 40 400
        Kola nuts 3 1.5


        Some problems encountered by farmers include:

        1. The difficulty of evacuating farm produce from the hinterlands to market centers due to the poor states of farm-to-market roads.
        2. The high cost of inputs necessary to step up production.
        3. Soil infertility resulting from poor farming practices.
        4. Poor organization of farmers.
        5. Inadequate storage facilities whenever there is high production and low sales.
        6. The problem of pests and diseases.
        7. Insufficient agricultural field staff who work under deplorable conditions.
        8. Absence of preservation, transformation, know-how and technology to guarantee and encourage increase production.
        9. Lack of guidance on use of CIT to share experience, improve yields, surveillance and source for new markets.

        Below, some of the common crop disease and pests in the Tiko council area. These problems seems to affect agricultural productivity and marketing of crops in the area.

        Table 9: Common crop diseases/pests in Tiko council area.


        Disease/ pest


        ACMVD- Africa (cassava mosaic virus disease that causes tuber rots)

        White flees that attach cassava leaves


        Stem borers, attack by snails

        Coco yams

        Root rot disease


        Insect attack


        Nematode and weevil attack


        Insect and fungi attack; fruit pollination from uninvited species

      3. Livestock production:
      4. Besides crop farming the population also practice livestock farming. Table 9 show the livestock production statistics.

        Table 10:  Livestock production

        Tiko municipality for 2010

        Source: Sub divisional delegation of

        MINEPIA, Tiko cf CDP 2011

        Animal type

        Quantity produced (number)











        In addition to the above livestock rabbits and Guinea pigs are also reared in the municipality. Cattle in the municipality are brought in from other areas for sale.

        The prevalence of animal diseases, inadequate veterinary facilities and high cost of inputs are affecting livestock production in the area.

      5. Fishing:
      6. A major part of the population in the Tiko Municipality is engaged in fishing from its creeks, rivers and streams and in the high sea. Both artisanal and industrial fishing is done in the municipality. Fresh water fish like Yenga, Cameroon Telga, Molette, Groupa, Clarias (Mud fish) and many other varieties are caught by local fishermen.

        Sea fish like; Bar Fish, Sea Groupa, Sharks, snake fish, kuta, “coverpot”, Cray fish, crab, “Bunga”, “strong canda” are caught by local fishermen and fishing companies from the Atlantic Ocean. Fishing is the main source of income for the inhabitants of the creeks where it is either sold in the fresh state or smoked state.

        Table 10 gives the quantities of fish sold as at November 2010. This quantity have not changed with the frequent harassment of foreigners by immigration authorities for resident permits.

        Table 11: Quantity of fish sold in Tiko sub division as at November 2010

        Fishing method


        Quantities sold (tones)


        Dry (smoked)

        Artisanal fishing







        Industrial fishing








        As far as fishing is concerned, problems faced include the non-respect of quotas and the use of wrong net sizes. In order to safeguard the ecosystem, Fishing permits are withdrawn from fishing companies who do not respect the laws. Another main problem faced is the use of toxic chemical by some local fishermen in fishing.

      7. Forest Exploitation
      8. About 80 % of forestland in the Tiko municipality has been converted to farm land (oil palm, rubber and banana plantations) by CDC, PHP and Delmonte. There is no timber exploitation in the area. Timber is imported from Kumba, Mbanga and limbe into the sub division.

        However, the CDC rubber trees provide sizeable volume used as firewood for cooking. The harvest and sale are made when old trees are rejected or when brought down by wind especially during the rainy season.

        However, the Mangrove forest of Tiko Sub division is highly exploited for by fishermen as wood for drying of fish. Most of the exploiters are foreigners (Nigerian) who do it illegally and unsustainably.

    3. The secondary sector
    4. The secondary sector is generally defined by mining and industrial activities. Also called manufacturing or industrial it is the sector which transforms one physical good into another. The manufacturing, electricity, gas, water supply, etc. are included in this sector. Businesses that make up the secondary sector of the industry often require substantial machinery to operate, and they create waste that can contribute to environmental pollution.

      • Tiko Municipality harbors a few industrial establishments that contribute in one way or another to the economic development of the municipality:
      • Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) which own palm oil processing and rubber plants since 1947.
      • Delmonte Corporation which had a large Banana plantation, process, and packages the fruit on the spot for exportation. It has recently devolved its operations to CDC.
      • Les Brasseries du Cameroun had brewery located at Ombe to bottle beverages now transformed solely as a distribution center.
      • Volcanic is a water bottling company.
      • Neo-TP and CDL (Carriere Du Litoral) are construction companies and produce gravels.
      • SAMCO-Paper production Company at Ombe
      •  Chiongxi (Chinese egg, chicken, and feed production company).
      • MPLM Ltd - Metro Politian Plastics, which process and transforms materials to produce plastic and paper packaging for companies.

      There is no available information on mining activities in the area, though it is obvious that valuable mineral resources could be found in the area as per its closeness to other areas with huge deposits. However, there are stone deposits in Ombe currently being exploited by two construction companies NEO-TP and CDL (Carrier du Littoral).

      The presence of these industrial establishments is influencing the migration of many people into the municipality, for employment or commercial purposes. The presence of some of these companies is accompanied by the construction of basic infrastructures like roads, potable water, and health units. These factors lead to the socio-economic development of the area.

    5. The tertiary sector
    6. The tertiary sector is characterized by the production of services of various kinds like education, health, banking, insurance, trade, transport, etc.

      This sector in the Tiko municipality is characterized by provision stores, bakeries, Barbing saloons, hairdressing saloons, bars, restaurants, tailoring workshops, wholesale shops, discotheques, carpentry workshops, welding workshops, motor mechanic workshops, sawmills, grinding mills, documentation centers, cyber café, hotels, interior decoration workshops, etc.

      These businesses evidently contribute to the local economy through payment of taxes to the council and employment.

      1. Commercial activities
      2. There exist many traders who sell foodstuff like palm oil, plantain, cocoyam, yams, banana, cassava products, maize, fruits, and fish.

        There also exist many wholesale and retail shops for items like building materials, electronics, dresses, motor parts, etc. Statistics gathered from the council market toll and building permits ranked amongst the highest local revenue sources and generating tens of millions annually (annexed table: 5-year trend, 5 most important activities.

        These figures depict the level and potential of commercial activities.

        Tiko Main market-Commercial activities & market toll collection

        The municipality also has many financial institutions that provide saving and loan opportunities to the population of the municipality and money transfers for commercial activities.

        Table 12: List of financial institutions in the municipality

        Type of institution

        Name of institution







        Cooperative credit union limited

        Tiko united credit union Ltd


        Progressive cooperative credit union Ltd


        Tiko Central savings & loans cooperative credit union


        Mutengene credit union


        Other CAMCUL affiliated Micro Finance institutions

        Security finance cooperative


        Community Credit company


        Rural Investment credit


        Express savings and credit


        Money transfer institutions

        Express exchange


        Express union


        Source: Field survey cf CDP 2011

        These institutions also contribute towards local economic development through payment of taxes and provision of credit facilities to the population.

      3. Transport activities
      4. Transportation means in the municipality include buses, taxis, motorbikes, and boats. Taxis, buses, and motorbikes are used for transportation in towns and some mainland villages while villages in the creeks can only be accessed through waterways, using boats. There also exist three interurban transport agencies in the municipality.

        These transport services, especially the motorbike taxi business help reduce unemployment in the municipality with the engagement of many youths.

        The transport sector in the area is faced with the problem of poorly organized motor parks and rivalry between syndicate leadership and management of resources. Motorbikes are usually found crowded at road junctions or on roadsides waiting for passengers.

        Transport vehicles are either parked on the roadside while drivers scramble for passengers or they drive up and down to pick up passengers. These are promoting accidents, theft and other insecurity on travelers, especially in Mutengene and Likomba. There is a need to reorganize the sector and sensitize the public to reduce the level of insecurity.

        After the classical sorting of activities into primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, a clear picture of the economic atmosphere of the Tiko Municipality can be estimated by looking at three (3) aspects from the facets of origin, management, and control. These aspects are:

        • Statutory Economic Activity (EA) of the Council.
        • Economic Activities (EA) approved by the deliberative organ of the council.
        • Self - directing Economic Activities (EA) of the Council.
        1.  Statutory Economic Activity of the Council:
        2. This first group refers to what the council as an institution does to supplement and raise extra money for itself apart from what the law provides.

          A number of economic infrastructures and facilities within the municipality supports economic activity and is characterized by ‘use-and- pay’ or demand-based revenue. Here the council is at the source, controls and manages the generation of revenue.

          These are basically taxes voted by the national assembly and collected by the council essentially with the help of collaboration and expertise of the taxation department. For the council to get the best out of this operation there must be a fluent collaboration between the two parties.

          CODEFIL attempts to play this role though not quite engaged as an enabling instrument. Their involvement needs to be revisited. Most of the revenue here relates to direct taxes. Examples include land and building taxes. (See charts of past Tiko Council performance in this area here annexed).

        3. EA approved by the deliberative Organ of the Council:
        4. These income generation activities of the Council are reviewed by the Deliberative Organ in session and must be approved by the supervisory authority (SDO).

          They are essentially Indirect taxes. A few of them could be cited hereunder.

          • Entertainment Tax: Taxes paid by organizers of entertainment activities. No fixed rate. It depends on the activity and number of days. No guide.
          • Park fees: These are fees paid to the council treasury by commercial vehicles. They range from:
          1. Township taxis: 4,000 f. CFA
          2. Buses: 5,000 f. CFA
          3. Trucks & Camions: 10,000 f. CFA
          • Parking Lot: This income generation avenue for the council is yet to be realized. The council is yet to design the lots and devise convenient management and implementation strategy for the process. Possible areas may include high-density avenues of the Municipality like Mutengene Highway and Tiko park market zones. No deliberation yet.
          • Fee per Bus Load

          Buses loading passenger at the Mutengene and Tiko -Douala Road parks are required to pay some f.cfa per load increasing as the capacity of the vehicle and km increases: Flat rate 250 excluding syndicate fees per trip.

          1. 14 & 18 seater buses loading to Douala/ Buea/ Limbe/Kumba, etc.
          2. Above 18 seater bus Douala/ Buea/ Limbe/Kumba, etc.
          3. Other loadings to Douala/ Buea/ Limbe/Kumba, etc.
          • Market toll & rents:
          1. Fixed fee from 2,000 Land fees (stores under BOT). 5,000 to 15,000 f.cfa rents depending on area and size of store: Regular traders & Vendors
          2. Between 100/space f.cfa Occasional vendors without permanent site.
          • Temporal occupation of communal space: 
          1. 200/M2
          • Wharf and Sand loading: 
          1. 2,000 per truck for each activity.
          • Building permit: 

          All proprietors of projects pay 1% of the total estimated cost of the building to the council treasury.

          • Temporal Occupation of communication space:

          This sector has been privatized by the council between four specialized companies to help collect the revenues: ACMAR, Empire Media 102, Media Plus and Tendances. These companies use special agreed tariffs to bill and collect on behalf of the council.

          • The policy of Build Operate & Transfer (BOT):

          The council has recently engaged in a new move to increase the development of social infrastructure by urging entrepreneurs to Build approved structures and collect an agreed toll before handing to the council after a calculated number of years.

          This technique is paving the way to a new wave of a partnership between the Council and the Population and actually generating increased economic activities in the Municipality.

          The cases of BOT business stalls could be cited in Mutengene and Tiko Motor Parks and Tiko Market. Here it is taxed at 2,000 f.cfa.

          • Tourism

          The town is receiving a growing number of Hotels, snack bars, clubs, beer parlors and catering houses to handle the multiple visitors, holidaymakers, and enthusiasts. There is currently no qualified one (1) star qualified hotel despite the gateway and junction nature of the municipality.

          There exist 18 hole golf course at Likomba, SS quarters tennis court and swimming pool attract a number of visitors from other towns. These facilities owned by CDC seems heavily hit by socio political crisis. The swimming pool and tennis courts at the time of our visit seem abandoned and unused for quite a while.

          The council is seeking new ways in its development plan to find a sustainable mechanism to have new partners, invest and make revenue from these huge touristic potentials of its Municipality especially acquiring tour boats, yachts, cruise ships, multipurpose catering centre, adequately classified hotel, museum, tertiary incubator centre, etc. Until this date the council does not have any institutionalised form of direct revenue in the tourism sector.

        5.  Self - directing EA of the Council:
        6. The third group refers to autonomous un-coerced activities independent of the council as an institution but which enormously add to the general economic climate of the Municipality.

          In terms of stratification, the GREMPCO team found out that, approximately 70% of the active population of Tiko Municipality is engaged in the primary sector of activities, 25% in the tertiary sector, and less than 5% in the secondary sector activities directly or indirectly.

          These figures shall continue to change as the urban population increase, businesses step as well to take advantage of the population growth. The trend for tertiary to grow is very high with the current challenges faced by the plantations due to the ongoing political crisis.

          Administrative, Educational, consultancy and documentation services, Tourism, trade, commerce, and liberal activities are growing to occupy an important space in the economy of the Municipality. To facilitate growth in economic activities of this new vibrant sector, the Council has taken quick actions in recent times in providing market, office spaces, and business premises through the “BOT” technique.

          These autonomous un-coerced activities independent of the council as an institution but add to the general economic climate of the Tiko Municipality include but not limited to:

      5. Administrative services:
      6. Tiko currently serves as the administrative headquarter of the Sub Division. In this regard, it hosts assorted services:

        • Sub Divisional Delegations and offer services for and on behalf of the ministry.
        • Sub Divisional Office coordinates administrative activities within the Municipality.
        • Post office.
        • Schools: Tiko Municipality has 12 secondary, 45 primaries and 16 nursery schools scattered within the council area.
        • A specialized ANPHIBE military base - infantry battalion
        • The Police College attracts a lot of people from other towns and countries to the municipality.

        This and other subsidiaries make it a junction town for people transiting to the following communities increasing sphere of economic activities in the community:

        • Mile 4, Limbe, Idenau, and Nigeria (by sea)
        • Buea, Muyuka, Kumba, Tombel, Bangem, Mamfe, Bamenda
        • Douala, Baffoussam and Yaounde.
        • Douala, Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea by water
      7. Education & Academic Centres:
      8. Education constitutes part of the social and economic development of the Tiko Municipality. Through the involvement of other Stakeholders, the town has shown a healthy improvement in its literacy rates during the last decade.

        Though there is a direct need for the town to increase specialized tertiary institutions to help change the mindset of the population and drive the economy to the next level.

        Tiko is hosts to the following Educational Establishment that brings an influx of migrant population:

        • Government Technical College, Ombe.
        • Police College, Mutengene training officers from Cameroon and other African Countries.
        • Maflekumen Higher Institute /School of Health Sciences
        • Life Trust Professional Institute of Competence opened this academic year, October 2019.
        • The plethora of Nursery, Primary, Secondary, Professional Colleges & Institutions

        These centres and offices attract lucrative catering, administrative and secretarial services within the municipality.

      9. Agriculture:
      10. It is true that more than 90% of activities in the villages and semi-urban areas are subsistence farming on the rich semi volcanic soils.

        Most of the foodstuffs and vegetables are sold in the local markets in retail and in bulk to traders en route to other cities in the country and neighboring countries of Gabon, Nigeria, and Equatorial Guinea. There is also a small group of poultry and piggery farmers for the local market as pigs are widely used for barbecue and traditional ceremonies.

        A larger part of agriculture is via huge plantations owned and run by CDC, PNP, and smallholder schemes. Most of their products such as banana, Rubber, Palm oil are principally for export. 

        There exist also Chiongxi, a Chinese Company situate at Ombe's new layout that is fully engaged in egg, chicken and feed production.

        Horticulture is also scantily practiced for local use, national markets around Mutengene.

      11. Tertiary businesses:
      12. Banks, cooperative societies, Micro Finance Institutions and Insurance houses are represented as well and facilitate business transactions and activities especially money transfers and loan acquisition.

        It would be a grave mistake not to recognize the contributions of meeting houses, “Njangi” and underground money lenders that make money transactions simple and friendly.

      13. Liberal profession:
      14. The court of first Instance with a multitude of lawyers and sheriff bailiffs are present to facilitate judicial services.

      15. Technical skills:
      16. Technical works and repairs in the area of Building & Constructions, Welding, Tailoring and fashion design, woodwork, computers, and ICT are the more prominent trades amongst others.

      17. Transporters:
      18. The rapidly growing population has attracted several transporters, professionals, and syndicates in the likes of:

        • Inter-Urban bus drivers,
        • Inter urban “clando” drivers
        • Internal taxi drivers
        • Truck drivers
        • Bike riders
        • Shippers
      19. Commerce & Trading:
      20. The volume of building material consumed in the Municipality and the building toll paid gives an indication of a growing city. The attribution of new layouts, the seemingly peaceful atmosphere compared to other towns of the Region and the establishment of new tertiary institutions gives an added impetus.

        This is clearly an indication of the economic development and growth of the municipality. One could spot building material stores competing, growing and surpassing other economic activity.

        Another clear indication of this business trend and economic opportunity is that finding a decent house to let is attributed to luck due to scarcity. This implies that though the sector is taking a lead it has huge gaps and potential.

        Provision stores are covered in almost all parts of the town competing and doing business with the growing population in need. It's popular and legendary Tiko town main market attracts traders and buyers from other neighboring towns within and out of the country.

      21. Obstacles to business economic development:
      22. Tiko, however, has as major obstacles to development the enclave and unmapped nature of the council area especially the villages, islands, and creeks, where most parts of the council remained inaccessible.

        The aspects of huge plantations of Palms, robber, and Banana which consumed a vast part of the land have worsened the situation, leaving the municipality with a little land area for growth, expansion, and agriculture by virtue of its semi volcanic soils.

        The complex nature of taxes equally leaves young entrepreneurs to wind up and go search for jobs. To make matters worse is the educational institutions that had giving graduates the certificate and matricule syndrome rather than prepare to develop an entrepreneurial mindset and intentions needed to drive the economy.